The reliability and validity of the facial anthropological device
Rayner, Monique Jo Anne
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It is generally agreed that the most troublesome procedure during the fabrication of complete dentures is the measurement of the Vertical Dimension at rest. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of a new instrument called the Facial Anthropological Device (FAD). The measurements recorded were compared to the Willis gauge (being the gold standard) and dividers, which are mechanical aids used to quantify lower third facial height during denture construction. This thesis presents data on 35 edentulous and 35 dentate patients in the age range of 30 to 70 years, who presented at the University of the Western Cape Dental faculty.The FAD incorporates a ‘spirit‐level’ and uses more anatomical landmarks than any other measuring device noted in the literature. It measures facial landmarks in the midline and is not only used to measure the vertical dimension of the face, but with further research, may also be used in forensic studies. The Willis gauge is designed to measure the distance from the lower border of the septum of the nose to the lower border of the chin, and the distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the corner of the relaxed lip with the teeth in occlusion. The dividers measures two arbitrary points on the face.The study showed that the FAD was most similar to the Willis gauge where reliability and reproducibility was compared. There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the two devices.The FAD has shown to be a reliable and valid instrument that could be used to measure facial vertical dimension in the edentulous as well as dentate patients, however with some modifications to its design.