Radiosensitization effects of gold nanoparticles in proton therapy
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Despite recent advances in radiotherapy, some tumours have shown to be resistant to treatment and patients still experience long term side effects. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as effective radiosensitizers when employed concurrently with kilovoltage X-rays, which could selectively increase the dose delivered to a patient's tumour. The clinical application of proton radiation has gained renewed attention due to the lower integral body dose of protons compared to traditional X-ray based therapy. While extensive research has been formed on the behaviour of AuNPs in photon beams, limited information is available on the combination of AuNPs and proton radiation. Several questions remain regarding the interaction of protons with the AuNPs and possible dose enhancement effects at different depths along the Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP).