Graphenated electrode protocol for electrochemical nanosensing of 17β- estradiol as an environmental estrogeneous endocrine disruptor
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17β-Estradiol can be defined as an endocrine disruptor chemical with estrogenic activity, which can bind to the estrogen receptor in the body and potentially alter the normal physiological function of the endocrine systems. Estradiol has come into veterinary use both to cure and to prevent animal infections. But owing to its anabolic properties it is also illegally used in livestock production for growth promotion purposes. The presence of low concentrations of estrogens in the environment can cause abnormal sexual development of animals and decrease the average number of human spermatozoa. Therefore, we must monitor the concentration of estradiol in aquatic environment to protect the health of humans and animals. Generally, the detection of estradiol includes the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), surface plasma resonance (SPR), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and electrochemical enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although these techniques are useful, many of them are expensive and time consuming.