African perspectives on the land question: The Native Laws Commission 1883
Swartz, Moshe Edward
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Both Am-Xhosa and the European farmers, being pastoralists "the search for land and grass was (their) first principle", notes Walker (1928). When they met, they differed fundamentally on the "vital matter oflandholding" . So different were their perspectives, that Lekhehla (1955) suggested, as far as the treaties were concerned: "The Native Chiefs either did not understand the implications of the border treaties, or if they did, never intended to respect such treaties" (p.2 1). Hopper (1980) says the tension between the Europeans and the Africans on the land issue emanated from the fact that "Xhosa expansion" and "colonial expansion" processes were entirely different. While Am-Xhosa expanded in order to "preserve their political integrity" colonists were driven by an economic dynamic they expanded because land was necessary to accommodate growth (1980:261).