Graphenated organic nanoparticles immunosensors for the detection of TB biomarkers
Mgwili, Phelisa Yonela
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Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) a disease second to HIV/AIDS is a global health problem that arises in two states; as an active state and as a latent state. Diagnosis of active TB is tedious and requires expensive procedures since there is no recognizable method for the sole detection of active TB. The current diagnosis consists of chest X-rays and multiple sputum cultures used for acid-fast bacilli detection. The TB diagnosis of children is particularly difficult which further complicates the diagnosis. Thus, rapid identification of this pathogen is important for the treatment and control of this infection to allow effective and timely therapy. In an effort to solve this issue, this study reports the development of immunosensors constructed with electroactive layers of amino groups functionalized graphene oxide (GO) doped respectively with green synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) nanoparticles and silver (Ag NPs) nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes. The surface morphology of GO, ZnO NPs, Ag NPs and their composites was revealed by employing High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM) while the composition and structure of these materials were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The resultant graphene oxide-metallic composites were covalently attached with CFP-10 and/or ESAT-6 antibodies to achieve the electrochemical detection. The immunosensor was then used for the impedimetric and amperometric detection of anti-CFP-10 and/or anti-ESAT-6 antigens in standard solutions.