The potential neuroprotective effects of two South African plant extracts in hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal toxicity
Gier, Megan Loran
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Background: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species has been strongly associated with many neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and many medicinal plant-derived products have been reported to exert potent antioxidant properties. Sutherlandia frutescens (SF) and Carpobrotus edulis (CE) are two indigenous South African plants with known anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, the neuroprotective effects of SF and CE have not been extensively studied. Aims: This study was done to investigate the neuroprotective potentials of S. frutescens and C. edulis aqueous extracts on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity in an SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cellular model of oxidative stress injury. Methods: The maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of SF and CE against SH-SY5Y cells was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thereafter, the cells were exposed to 250 μM H2O2 for 3 hours before treatment with the determined MNTDs of SF and CE extracts respectively and the effects of the treatments on caspase-9 protease activity, intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), nitric oxide (NO) activity, intracellular calcium activity and endogenous antioxidant activity in SH-SY5Y cells was evalaluated using caspase activity kits, DCFH-DA assay, rhodamine 123 fluorescent dye, Griess reagent, Fluo-4 direct calcium reagent, Hoechst staining dye, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) colorimetric and Catalase (CAT) assays, respectively.