The efficiency of drinking water treatment plants in removing immunotoxins
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water treatment processes of two drinking water plants to remove immunotoxins and steroid hormones. Raw and treated drinking water was screened for effects on inflammatory activity using the biomarker IL-6, humoral immunity using the biomarker IL-10 and cell mediated immunity using the biomarker FN-γ. In vitro human whole blood culture assays were used in order to elucidate potential immunotoxicity.