World Bank governance conditionality, sovereignty of borrowing states and effectiveness of investment loans: an analysis of the Chad-IBRD loan agreement
Azapmo, Jean Bertrand
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Thirty years after it has achieved its independence, the Republic of Chad, which has faced a long political instability, decided to exploit its oil resources in order to achieve its development objectives. Owing to the difficulties encountered in mobilizing financial resources for the realization of the project, the Government obtained from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) a loan US$39.5 millions. The loan Agreement, signed between the two parties on 29 March 2001 included a provision referring to the Petroleum Revenue Management Program, described in schedule 5 of the Agreement. This Petroleum Revenue Management Program imposed a number of obligations, related to the actions to be undertaken by the Chadian Government prior to the release of the funds by the Bank, and to the modalities to be followed in the course of the management of the oil revenues. These obligations are also known as governance conditionalities. This theses raised the issues of the legitimacy of the Bank's Governance conditionality, its impact on both the sovereignty of the borrower to freely determine the use of its resources and the effectiveness of the loan.