Frequency and voltage-modulated electrochemical aflatoxin b1immunosensor systems prepared on electroactive organic polymer platforms
Odero, Owino Joseph Hasael
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In the presented work, immunosensors for detection of Aflatoxin B1 based on different immobilization platforms were studied. Synthesis of an electroactive hydrogel was also carried out. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins that have deleterious effects on humans and are produced during fungal infection of plants or plant products. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed with anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody immobilized on Pt electrodes modified with polyaniline (PANi) and polystyrene sulphonic acid (PSSA). Impedimetric analysis shows that the electron transfer resistances of Pt/PANi-PSSA electrode, Pt/PANi-PSSA/AFB1-Ab immunosensor and Pt/PANi- PSSA/AFB1-Ab incubated in BSA were 0.458, 720 and 1066 kΩ, respectively. These results indicate that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a suitable method for monitoring the change in electron-transfer resistance associated with the immobilization of the antibody. Modelling of EIS data gave equivalent circuits which showed that the electron transfer resistance increased from 0.458 kΩ for Pt/PANi-PSSA electrode to 1066 kΩ for Pt/PANi- PSSA/AFB1-Ab immunosensor, indicating that immobilization of the antibody and incubation in BSA introduced an electron transfer barrier. The AFB1 immunosensor had a detection limit of 0.1 mg/L and a sensitivity of 869.6 k ΩL/mg. In the second platform an immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and polythionine-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed. Aflatoxin B1-BSA conjugate was immobilised on the modified GCE. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or Bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used to block sites against non-specific binding of the AFB1- conjugate with other compounds such as the salts used in preparing the buffer when the antibody interacts with the AFB1 conjugate and free AFB1. Competition reaction was allowed to take place between the free AFB1 and AFB1-conjugate for the binding sites of the anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was employed to characterize the electrochemical properties of the modified process. The peak separation of the immunosensor (ΔEp) was 62 mV indicating a quasi reversible process. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor the analytical signal. The response decreased with an increase in AFB1 concentration in the range of 0.6-2.4 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.07 and 0.16 ng/mL for HRP and BSA blocked immunosensors respectively. Significantly the low detection limit of 0.07 ng/mL is within the limits set by worl health organization (WHO) for AFB1 and its derivatives which is 2 ng/mL The proposed method eliminates the use of secondary antibody enzymatic labels. Synthesis and characterization of (p-(HEMA)-polyaniline hydrogels were investigated. The hydrogels were synthesized using: 2-Hydroxyeththyl methacrylate (HEMA), N-Tris (hydroxymethyl) methyl] acrylamide, 3- Sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt, Tetraethylene glycol diacrylate, Poly-(2- hydroxyethyl methacrylate), 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and aniline by UV irradiation. Two sets of the hydrogels were prepared using water / 1, 3, 3, 3-(tetramethyl butyl phenyl polyethylene glycol [Triton X-100] and water / ethylene glycol as the solvent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a more uniform pore size when Triton X 100 (TX-100 HG) was used as compared to ethylene glycol (EG-HG). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that both hydrogels were stable up to 270 oC. Fourier transform-Infra red (FTIR) spectrum confirmed the incorporation of polyaniline (PANi) and HEMA in the composite. Electrochemical properties of the hydrogels evaluated using Cyclic Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrated the electroactivity and conductivity.