Metallodendrimers as catalysts for C-C coupling reactions
Mapolie, S. F.
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In this work, we describe the synthesis of ferrocenylimine and G1 dendrimeric N,N′ ligands, and their palladium(II) complexes. The ligands L1 – L4 were synthesized following Schiff base condensation reactions. The ferrocenylimine ligands L1 and L2 were prepared from ferrocenecarboxaldehyde and 1,3-diaminopropane or DAB-4-(NH2)4, while the G1 dendrimeric N,N′ ligands L3 and L4 were prepared from DAB-4-amine and 2- pyridinecarboxaldehyde or 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde. The air and moisture stable ligands were obtained in fairly good yields of over 65 %. All the ligands were observed to be soluble in common organic solvents. They were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, micro-analysis and ESImass spectrometry.A reaction of the ligands with PdCl2(COD) or PdCl2(MeCN)2 gave palladium(II) complexes C1 – C4 in good yields of over 70%. The complexes were observed to be stable. However,the complexes did not dissolve in common organic solvents. These were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.All the complexes were screened for activity towards Heck coupling model reaction of iodobenzene with styrene. The complexes catalyzed the coupling of styrene with iodobenzene, giving over 60 % conversions. However, complex C3 was found to be the most active catalyst, yielding 75% conversion without formation of palladium black.