Assessment of common perinatal mental disorders in a selected district hospital of the Eastern Province in Rwanda
Common perinatal mental disorders (CPMDs) are increasingly being recognised as an important public health issue including depression and anxiety. In low and middle income countries such as Rwanda, CPMDs are prevalent among women in perinatal period. In Africa, the estimated prevalence rates of depression are 11.3% and 18.3% during ante-postnatal respectively, while ante-postnatal anxiety rates are 14.8% and 14% respectively. However, in Rwanda there is limited literature on CPMDs. This study was aimed at determining the occurrence of CPMDs in a selected district hospital of the Eastern Province in Rwanda as well as the factors associated with CPMDs in the selected study area. A descriptive quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of one hundred and sixty five mothers in perinatal period, who were selected systematically. Demographic data and factors associated with CPMDs were determined using structured questionnaire and combined screening tools such as Zungu Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The Cronbach alpha values were 0.87 and 0.89 for SAS and EPDS respectively. SPSS Version 21 was utilized to analyse data. Univariate, bivariate correlational and multivariate analyses were performed. Most of the respondents (38.2%) were aged 25-29 years; Protestants (77.6%); married (44.8%); unemployed (77%) and had a primary school level of education (60.6%). With respect to participants in antenatal period (51.5%); 14.5% had a clinical level of anxiety and 19.4% had depression. In terms of participants in postnatal period (46.7%); 22.5% had a clinical level of anxiety and 29.7% had depression. However, participants in both periods (1.8%) all had a normal level of anxiety and 1.2% had depression.