Electrodeposition of multi-valent metal oxides at 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ionic liquid - carbon paste electrode
A study on carbon paste electrode (CPE) materials containing 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [MOIM[Tƒ2N] – a hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid (IL) - is reported. CPEs with (a) the IL as the only binder (ILCPE) and (b) 1:1 (v/v) IL: paraffin mixture as the binder (ILPCPE) were prepared, characterized, and applied to the electrodeposition of films of multivalent transition metal oxides (MV-TMO) from five precursor ions (Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ce4+) in aq. KCl. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed a potential window of +1.5 V to -1.8 V regardless of the electrode type, including the traditional paraffin CP electrode (PCPE). However, the IL increased the background current by 100-folds relative to paraffin. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of ILPCPE in aq. KCl (0.1M) revealed two phase angle maxima in contrast with the single maxima for PCPE and ILCP. The study also included the CV and EIS investigation of the electrode kinetics of the Fe(CN)6 3-/4 redox system at these electrodes. The electrodeposition of Fe2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ possibly in the form of the MV-TMOs FexOy, CoxOy, and MnxOy, respectively, onto the electrodes was confirmed by the observation of new and stable cathodic and anodic peaks in a fresh precursor ion –free medium. CVs of H2O2 as a redox probe supported the same conclusions. Both ATR-FTIR spectra and SEM image of surface samples confirmed the formation of electrodeposited films. This study demonstrated that the use of this hydrophobic IL alone or in combination with paraffin as a binder gives viable alternative CPE materials with better performance for the electrodeposition of MV-TMOs films than the paraffin CPE. Thus, in combination with the easy preparation methods and physical “morpheability” in to any shape, these CPEs are potentially more useful in electrochemical technologies based on high surface-area MV-TMO films in general, and MnxOy films in particular.