Prevalence of non-AIDS defining conditions and their associations with virologic treatment failure among adult patients on anti-retroviral treatment in Botswana
Masokwane, Patrick Maburu Dintle
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Background: The recognition of HIV/AIDS as a chronic life-long condition globally in recent years has demanded a different perception and an alignment to its association with other chronic diseases. Both HIV and other chronic non-communicable diseases are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. Their combined DALY contributions for Botswana would be significant if research and strategies in controlling these conditions are not put in place. Natural aging and specific HIV-related accelerated aging of patients who are on antiretroviral treatment means that age-related diseases will adversely affect this population. Princess Marina Hospital Infectious Diseases Care Clinic has been in operation since 2002. The clinic has initiated over 16 000 patients on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) since 2002. The current study estimated the prevalence of non-AIDS defining conditions (NADCs) in the attendees of the clinic in 2013. The majority of patients that attended the clinic had been on treatment for over three years with some patients more than ten years. These ART experienced patients were more likely to be susceptible to chronic non-communicable diseases, including non-AIDS defining conditions. The nomenclature used in classification of NADCs in the current study was appropriate for resource-limited settings; because the study setting offered HIV treatment under resources constraints. Aim: The current study characterised non-AIDS defining conditions, and determined their associations with virologic treatment failure in a cohort of patients that were enrolled at Princess Marina Hospital antiretroviral clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study of records of patients who attended the Princess Marina Infectious Diseases Care Clinic in 2013. Stratified random sampling of a total of 228 patients’ records was achieved from a total population of 5,781 records. Data was transcribed into a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and then exported to Epi-Info statistical software for analysis. Results: Eighty (35%) cases of NADCs were reported/diagnosed in the study sample; with 27% (n=62) of the patients having at least one condition, 6.7% (n=17) two conditions, and 0.4% (n=1) three conditions. The top prevalent conditions were hypertension (n= 40), hyperlipidaemia (n=7) and lipodystrophy (n=7). The prevalence of NADCs on the various categories of patients compared with the total sample population was as follows: active patients (prevalence ratio= 0.70), transferred out patients (prevalence ratio = 1.24), patients who died (prevalence ratio=2.04) and patients who were lost to follow-up (prevalence ratio =2.86). The prevalence of NADCs was significantly associated with increasing age (p<0.001); having social problems (p=0.028); having been on treatment for over three years (p=0.007); an outcome of death (p = 0.03) and being lost to follow-up (p=0.007). The study showed that being controlled on second line or salvage regimen (p=0.014) and the presence of adherence problems in the past was associated with virologic failure (p=0.008). There was no association of presence of NADCs to virologic failure. Conclusions: There was significant morbidity of non-AIDS defining conditions in the Princess Marina Infectious Diseases Care Clinic shown by a prevalence of NADCs in the clinic of 35% in 2013.The significant associations of the presence of NADCs and virologic failure with outcomes of death and loss to follow-up illustrate the adverse effects that NADCs are having, and calls for strategies to address multi-morbidities in HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment.