The in vitro antimicrobial activity of advanced platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) against microorganisms of the oral cavity
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In recent years, the development and use of autologous platelet rich concentrates (PC's) has gained traction within the rapidly progressive, multidisciplinary field of regenerative medicine. A PC subtype, marketed as advanced platelet rich fibrin (A- PRF), is a recent advancement of the original PRF protocol and promoted as a "blood concentrate" containing platelets, leukocytes, circulating stem cells and endothelial cells. A-PRF in the form of membranes, plugs, or even shredded particulates are increasingly being used as surgical adjuncts in areas of previous infection or left exposed within the microbial rich oral environment. Although recent literature has noted the biologic benefits of this material within the context of wound healing and regeneration, the antimicrobial potential of APRF has remained unexplored. The aim of this investigation is to determine if A-PRF displays antimicrobial activity against microbes of the oral cavity with a null hypothesis that its activity is no different to a clot of unprocessed venous blood. Methodology: A-PRF and whole blood samples were obtained from consenting individuals and utilised to conduct an in-vitro agar disk diffusion investigation to determine their antimicrobial activity. Standardised samples of A-PRF, unprocessed clotted blood and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) were tested against organisms cultured from fresh oral rinse samples and pure cultures of candida albicans, streptococcus mutans, staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed in accordance to the established principles of the agar disk diffusion method and measurement of inhibition zones. Results: A-PRF displayed antimicrobial activity against all of the individual organisms tested within this study following a 24 hour incubation period. However, no significant differences were noted between A-PRF and a natural clot of blood when tested against cultures of the oral rinse sample. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of A-PRF is significantly inferior to an equal volume of the CHX preparation. Conclusion: Although A-PRF displays antimicrobial activity; its strength, spectrum and biologic activity within a polymicrobial environment requires further investigation.