Thermochemical Storage and Lithium Ion Capacitors Efficiency of Manganese-Graphene Framework
Hlongwa, Ntuthuko Wonderboy
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Lithium ion capacitors are new and promising class of energy storage devices formed from a combination of lithium-ion battery electrode materials with those of supercapacitors. They exhibit better electrochemical properties in terms of energy and power densities than the above mentioned storage systems. In this work, lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4; LMO) and lithium manganese phosphate (LiMnPO4; LMP) as well as their respective nickel-doped graphenised derivatives (G-LMNO and G-LMNP) were synthesized and each cathode material used to fabricate lithium ion capacitors in an electrochemical assembly that utilised activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and lithium sulphate electrolyte in a two-electrode system. The synthetic protocol for the preparation of the materials followed a simple solvothermal route with subsequent calcination at 500 - 800 ?C. The morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of the as prepared materials were thoroughly investigated through various characterisation techniques involving High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Galvanostatic charge/discharge.