An in vitro study on the immunotoxicity of South African beer
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Traditionally brewed beers are of cultural and economic importance to many African nations. The presence of mycotoxins in African beer is a topic that needs to be addressed, since most African countries have a climate of high humidity and temperature that favours the growth of moulds. Mycotoxins challenge not only the health of animals and humans, but also the economy, especially in underdeveloped countries where contamination is most likely. Literature proves that mycotoxins depict various effects on the immune system including immunotoxicity. Beer analysis is therefore of utmost importance in order to evaluate organoleptic characteristics, quality, nutritional value as well as safety. The aims of this study involve the analysis and comparison of traditional and commercial beer in terms of physical characteristics, mycotoxin concentrations as well as effects on specific immune pathway biomarkers in order to elucidate possible immunotoxicity.