An acoustic, genetic and morphological review of the genus Bullacris (Orthoptera; Pneumoridae)
Gordon, Mikhaila Leigh
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Bladder grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Pneumoridae) are nocturnal African herbivores that are endemic to the coastal regions of southern Africa. They rely heavily on sound communication for mate location and have a unique body structure, with an inflated abdomen seen only in males that aids in sound production. They have a continuous distribution that extends along the coast of South Africa from Namibia, into the eastern regions of Mozambique and beyond, as far as Uganda. Bullacris is the largest genus within the Pneumoridae family. Members of this genus are mostly found within South Africa and inhabit different vegetation biomes, namely the Succulent- Karoo, Fynbos and Savannah biomes. There are currently seven described species within the genus, based solely on morphological differences. However, these morphological differences are not well defined for all species pairs, leading to some degree of uncertainty in species delineation.