Corporate criminal responsibility under the Malabo Protocol: A step forward?
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Traditionally, domestic criminal law was focused on individual guilt as can be seen from the principles of punishment, which are closely linked to blameworthiness and the infliction of loss or punishment to the offender. It most often requires the proof of the offender's mental state at the time of the committing the offence. Due to the emergence of the concept of legal persona, there has emerged a framework of imputing criminal liability on entities with legal personality. This concept has gained momentum in the domestic criminal law systems of many countries. The modern-day development of corporate criminal responsibility (CCR) emerged from the common law countries and has undergone a series of developments. Various models of imputing liability on a corporation have been developed with the United Kingdom having recently passed laws for serious offences like corporate manslaughter.
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