Ocean governance in South Africa: Policy and implementation
Naidoo, Ashley Desmond
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Ocean Governance in South Africa has gained momentum over the last decade with the publication of the Green and White Papers on the National Environmental Management of the Ocean in 2012 and 2014, and the promulgation of the Marine Spatial Planning Act in 2019. Parallel to this South Africa developed and implemented the Operation Phakisa Ocean Economy Development Programme and declared a network of twenty Marine Protected Areas. The timing of this study over the last five years allowed the opportunity to undertake a detailed study of the Ocean Governance Policy Development and Implementation as the formulation of the policy and its early implementation unfolded. The Study is primarily based on interpretation of the Green and White Papers as the primary and directed ocean governance policies produced by the Government of South African and the National Department of Environmental Affairs. It places these most recent specific ocean environmental policies in the context of the many other environmental policies that exits in the country.
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