Energy Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks using Hierarchical Routing Techniques
Abidoye, Ademola Philip
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become a popular research area that is widely gaining the attraction from both the research and the practitioner communities due to their wide area of applications. These applications include real-time sensing for audio delivery, imaging, video streaming, and remote monitoring with positive impact in many fields such as precision agriculture, ubiquitous healthcare, environment protection, smart cities and many other fields. While WSNs are aimed to constantly handle more intricate functions such as intelligent computation, automatic transmissions, and in-network processing, such capabilities are constrained by their limited processing capability and memory footprint as well as the need for the sensor batteries to be cautiously consumed in order to extend their lifetime. This thesis revisits the issue of the energy efficiency in sensor networks by proposing a novel clustering approach for routing the sensor readings in wireless sensor networks. The main contribution of this dissertation is to 1) propose corrective measures to the traditional energy model adopted in current sensor networks simulations that erroneously discount both the role played by each node, the sensor node capability and fabric and 2) apply these measures to a novel hierarchical routing architecture aiming at maximizing sensor networks lifetime. We propose three energy models for sensor network: a) a service-aware model that account for the specific role played by each node in a sensor network b) a sensor-aware model and c) load-balancing energy model that accounts for the sensor node fabric and its energy footprint. These three models are complemented by a load-balancing model structured to balance energy consumption on the network of cluster heads that forms the backbone for any cluster-based hierarchical sensor network. We present two novel approaches for clustering the nodes of a hierarchical sensor network: a) a distance-aware clustering where nodes are clustered based on their distance and the residual energy and b) a service-aware clustering where the nodes of a sensor network are clustered according to their service offered to the network and their residual energy. These approaches are implemented into a family of routing protocols referred to as EOCIT (Energy Optimization using Clustering Techniques) which combines sensor node energy location and service awareness to achieve good network performance. Finally, building upon the Ant Colony Optimization System (ACS), Multipath Routing protocol based on Ant Colony Optimization approach for Wireless Sensor Networks (MRACO) is proposed as a novel multipath routing protocol that finds energy efficient routing paths for sensor readings dissemination from the cluster heads to the sink/base station of a hierarchical sensor network. Our simulation results reveal the relative efficiency of the newly proposed approaches compared to selected related routing protocols in terms of sensor network lifetime maximization.