The effects of silver nanoparticles on the expression of protein biomarkers of cell stress, apoptosis and inflammation by the human liver cancer cell line, HepG2
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Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and objects at the nanoscale (around 1-100 nm), socalled nanomaterials. These nanomaterials exhibit novel properties that are often very different to those of the bulk materials used for their synthesis. Hence, nanoparticles are widely commercialised, especially silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their antimicrobial properties and some other useful phenomena. This commercialisation leads to inevitable exposure to the environment and humans, which leads to inhalation, ingestion or dermal uptake of AgNPs by the human body culminating in distribution to several major organs, including the liver. Both chronic and acute exposure to AgNPs have been linked to detrimental effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. These include oxidative stress, induction of inflammation, DNA damage, cell death and many others.