Cellular and molecular biomarkers detected in the oral mucosa and saliva in water-pipe tobacco smoking compared to cigarette smoking: A systematic review
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Water-pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is a form of tobacco use with different names. There is a misconception that passing tobacco smoke through water reduces its harmful effects to increase its popularity. One million individuals smoke water-pipe daily, resulting in approximately five million deaths per annum globally. The toxic effects of WTS are related to the several components of the tobacco mixture. WTS contains 100 times more tar, four-fold more nicotine, eleven-fold more Carbon Monoxide (CO), and two to five-fold more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than cigarettes.