Determination of Thallium and Indium with an Electrochemically-reduced Graphene Oxide-Carbon Paste Electrode by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
In this study, graphene oxide was synthesized by oxidizing graphite using the modified Hummer's method. The graphene oxide was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction for structural and morphological properties. The graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced on a carbon paste electrode followed by the in situ deposition of mercury thin films to achieve electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified carbon paste metal film electrodes (ERGO-CP-MEs). The experimental parameters (amplitude, deposition time, deposition potential, frequency and rotation speed) were optimized, and the applicability of the modified electrode was investigated towards the simultaneous and individual determination of TI1+ and In3+ at the low concentration levels (?g L-1) in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.6) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The detection limit values for individual analysis at electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified carbon paste mercury film electrode (ERGO-CP-HgE ) was 2.4 and 1.1 ?g L-1 for TI1+ and In3+, respectively. The detection limit values for simultaneous analysis at ERGO-CPE was 1.32 and 1.33 ?g L-1 and individual analysis was 0.975 and 1.04 ?g L-1 for TI1+ and In3+, respectively.