Integrated approach to solving reservoir problems and evaluations using sequence stratigraphy, geological structures and diagenesis in Orange Basin, South Africa
Adekola, Solomon Adeniyi
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Sandstone and shale samples were selected within the systems tracts for laboratory analyses. The sidewall and core samples were subjected to petrographic thin section analysis, mineralogical analyses which include x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes geochemistry to determine the diagenetic alteration at deposition and post deposition in the basin. The shale samples were subjected to Rock-Eval pyrolysis and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) prior to gas chromatographic (GC) and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses of the rock extracts, in order to determine the provenance, type and thermal maturity of organic matter present in sediments of the Orange Basin. The results revealed a complex diagenetic history of sandstones in this basin, which includes compaction, cementation/micritization, dissolution, silicification/overgrowth of quartz, and fracturing. The Eh-pH shows that the cements in the area of the basin under investigation were precipitated under weak acidic and slightly alkaline conditions. The δ18O isotope values range from -1.648 to 10.054 %, -1.574 to 13.134 %, and -2.644 to 16.180 % in the LST, TST, and HST, respectively. While δ13C isotope values range from -25.667 to -12.44 %, -27.862 to -6.954% and -27.407 to -19.935 % in the LST, TST, and HST, respectively. The plot of δ18O versus δ13C shows that the sediments were deposited in shallow marine temperate conditions.