Transformational leadership and health related NGOs in Ethiopia: Members' perspectives of their leaders : a case study of Addis Ababa Network of PLHIV Associations (ANOPA+)
Clarifying the nexus between leadership and organisational effectiveness across the world remains a significant challenge that has raised robust scholarly debate. A wide range of conceptual models have been provided on effective leadership. But, at the global level few empirical studies have been done to examine transformational leadership in the context of Non-Government Organisations (NGOs). In line with the leadership theory and conceptual framework, this study sought to analyse members' perception of their leaders, using a case study NGO in Addis Ababa. The researcher employed both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methodology used questionnaire surveys based on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to assess the dominant leadership style within ANOPA+. Qualitative methodology was applied through semi-structured interviews, in order to deepen the understanding of the existing leadership style based on the members' perception of the organisation. The results of the study indicated that transformational leadership motivated followers to attain more than they thought possible, by appealing to followers self-esteem and inspiring them to go beyond self-centered interests. In addition, the research process identified five important gaps that impede the successful implementation of ANOPA+'s programme. First, this study revealed that ANOPA+ leaders failed to use, or lacked a proper understanding of, transformational leadership skills. Second, this empirical research, discovered that the dominant leadership style within ANOPA+ was transactional leadership. Third, this research confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between the perception of staff and volunteers regarding the leadership style within ANOPA+. Fourth, the field data assessment showed that HIV/AIDS status is the crucial criterion for appointment as a leader in ANOPA+. However, ANOPA+ members believed that effective leaders should have a combination of the knowledge, skills and competencies that followers can use to perform their day-to-day work. Fifth, the study identified that the appointment of women in leadership positions within ANOPA+ is very low. Within the context of the above mentioned analysis, the study finally brings into focus general observations gained from the investigation and provides recommendations to policy makers and other stakeholders.