A study of the factors determining the choice of exchange rate regime: with specific reference to China
Since the 1980s China had different exchange rate regimes. For example, in 1981, a dual-exchange rate system was introduced, with the official exchange rate applying to non-trade-related foreign exchange transactions and the depreciated internal settlement rate (ISR) applying to trade related transactions. This system was discontinued in 1985, but after the establishment of special economic zones to boost the country's export performance, the dual-exchange rate system was reintroduced in 1986. In 1994 the country informed the IMF that it will be switching to a managed floating exchange rate system and this was the official policy for almost ten years. However, de facto, the country chose to peg its currency to the USD during all these years (whilst Japan was the most important trading partner).The report provides a descriptive analytical overview of how China in this era of globalization and with the importance of the World Trade Agreement, managed to keep its currency pegged to the USD over such a long period of time. The most important factors explaining this choice were identified as the desire to stimulate export-let economic growth, the risk related to capital mobility, financial sector liberalization, relative price level stability, dollarization and politics.