Application of petrophysics and seismic in reservoir characterization. A case study on selected wells, in the Orange Basin, South Africa
The evaluation of petroleum reservoirs has shifted from single approach to an integrated approach. The integration, analysis and understanding of all available data from the well bore and creating property models is an exceptional way to characterize a reservoir. Formulating, implementing, and demonstrating the applicability of the joint inversion of seismic and well-bore related observations, and the use of information about the relationship between porosity and permeability as the key parameters for identifying the rock types and reservoir characterization is a vital approach in this study. Correlating well and seismic data, potential reservoirs can be delineated and important horizons (markers) can be pointed out to better characterize the reservoir. This thesis aims to evaluate the potential petroleum reservoirs of the Wells K-A1, K-A2, K-A3 and K-H1 of the Shungu Shungu field in the Orange Basin through the integration and comparison of results from core analysis, wireline logs and seismic and attempt to produce a good reservoir model and by additionally utilizing Petrophysics and seismic and trying to better understand why the area has dry wells. Different rock types that comprise reservoir and non reservoirs are identified in the study and five Facie types are distinguished. Tight, fine grained sandstones with low porosity values ranging from 3% - 6% where dominant in the targeted sandstone layers. Porosity values ranging from 11% - 18% where identified in the massive sandstone lithologies which where hosted by Well’s K-A2 and K-A3. Low permeability values reaching 0.1mD exist throughout the study area. Areas with high porosity also host high water saturation values ranging from 70 – 84%. An improvement in the porosity values at deeper zones (3700m -3725m) and is apparent. Poroperm plots exhibit quartz cemented sandstones and density with neutron plot suggest that the sandstones in the area contain quarts and dolomite mineralization.Well K-A3, consist of a cluster by quartzitic sandstone, meaning there is a large amount of sandstone present. There are apparent high porosity values around the sandstone. What is apparent from this plot is that there are many clusters that are scattered outside the chart. This could suggest some gas expulsions within this Well. Sandstones within the 14B2t1 to 14At1 interval are less developed in the vicinity covered by well K-A2 than at the K-A1 well location. The main targeted sandstones belong to the lower cretaceous and lie just below 13At1. The four wells drilled in this area are dry wells. The areas/blocks surrounding this area have shown to possess encouraging gas shows and a comparative study could reveal better answers. At deeper zones of the well at an interval of 5350m -5750m, there are more developed sandstones with good porosity values. The volume of shale is low and so is the water saturation. The main target sandstones in the study area are the Lower Cretaceous sandstones which are at an interval 13At1. These sandstones are not well developed but from the property model of the target surface it can be seen that the porosity values are much more improved than the average values applied on all the zones on the 3D grid.