Proximate determinants of fertility and contraceptive use among currently married women in Ethiopia
Lailulo, Yishak Abraham
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Fertility is one of the elements in population dynamics that has significant contribution towards changing population size and structure over time. In Ethiopia, fertility dropped only slightly between 2000 and 2005, from 5.5 children per woman to 5.4, and then decreased further to 4.8 children in 2011(CSA, 2012). Although a slight decreasing trend has shown from year to year, it is still high as compared to developed nations (Tewodros,2011). The age at which childbearing begins is an important factor in the overall level of fertility as well as of the health and well-being of the mother and the child (CSA, 2012).In 2008, of the 1.4 billion women in the developing world of reproductive age (15-49 years), more than 570 women die per 100,000 live births, and 70 percent of them die due to totally avoidable reasons (World Bank,2010). These women live in countries where their status is poor to extremely poor, and these conditions threaten their health in many ways. Sedgh, Hussain, Bankole, and Singh (2007) found that wherever fertility is high, maternal and infant and child mortality rates are high. In addition to these, high fertility and shorter birth intervals affect the survival chance of children and the health status of mothers. Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from 18 developing countries in Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East showed that a birth interval of threeyears increases the survival status of under-five children (Rutstein, 2003). Moreover, a similar survey of 52 developing countries found that markedly short birth intervals have a negative effect on pregnancy outcomes, increased morbidity in pregnancy, and increased infant and child mortality (Rutstein,2005). Setty-Venugopal and Upadhyay (2002) have documented that, in Sub-Saharan Africa, about 60% of women deliver the next child before the index child celebrates his/her third birthday, and almost a quarter before the second birth day.