The adaptation and contextualization of the bridges stroke self-management intervention for patients living with stroke in the Western Cape, South Africa
Groenewald, Ryan Clive
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Background: Many patients with stroke feel ill-prepared for discharge from stroke rehabilitation, despite having undergone extensive periods of therapy. From the available research, there is clear evidence that disease specific self-management interventions (SMI) are effective at changing targeted behavioural outcomes, and ultimately improve patient participation restrictions, using self-efficacy principles. A stroke SMI, originally developed by the Bridges Organization to address participation restriction in patients living with stroke in the United Kingdom (UK); was successfully adapted and contextualized for the New Zealand stroke population. A similar stroke SMI could have equal positive benefits for the South African stroke population but would need to be contextually relevant. Aim: This study aims to adapt and contextualize the original UK Bridges stroke SMI workbook for implementation with the South African stroke population. Method: The qualitative, exploratory study is conducted in five phases. Thirteen healthcare professionals (Phase 1) and 12 patients with stroke (Phase 2) are engaged with by the researcher using focus group discussions to understand their views on the implementation of self-management intervention in the local context; and one-on-one interviews with local South African patients living with stroke are conducted to explore their experiences (Phase 3) and build contextually relevant local vignettes. The adaptation and contextualization process of the Bridges stroke SMI workbook to the South African context occurs using the participant feedback and built vignettes from Phases 1 to 3. Consensus on the adaptation of the workbook is then reached through the use of an expert panel for peer-review (Phase 4), and a final focus group discussion with local healthcare professionals in the field of stroke rehabilitation (Phase 5) to produce the final South African Bridges stroke SMI workbook. Phase 1 and 5 participants were conveniently selected; while purposive sampling was applied for Phases 2 and 3. Throughout the various study phases, a thematic analysis procedure is employed by the researcher to analyse and interpret the themes identified through the qualitative data collected. A deductive approach was employed by the researcher for the focus group discussion data of Phase 1, 2, and 5; and an inductive approach to the data from the interviews in Phase 3. The trustworthiness criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability were applied.