An evaluation of Isoniazid prophylaxis treatment and the role of Xpert MTB/RIF test in improving the diagnosis and prevention of tuberculosis in children exposed to index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis in Kigali, Rwanda
Birungi, Francine Mwayuma
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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children (<15 years) in resource-limited countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) identified active contact screening and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) as essential actions for detecting and preventing childhood TB. Despite their benefits and inclusion in the policy of most National TB Programme (NTP) guidelines of the resource-limited countries, there is still a wide gap between policy and implementation. The implementation of contact screening for active case finding might be improved by the decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test in gastric lavage (GL) specimens, but this has not been previously assessed. Furthermore, although the provision of IPT to eligible child contacts has been a focus for implementation by the NTP of Rwanda since 2005, implementation has not previously been evaluated. The assessment of IPT uptake and adherence as well as associated factors could be informative for the programme. Therefore, we aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of Xpert MTB/RIF in GL among child contacts with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the uptake of and adherence to IPT by eligible child contacts to make recommendations towards strengthening TB diagnostic and prevention in children in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: The proposed study setting Kigali, the capital city of Rwanda, was the location for 30% of the national PTB case notifications in 2013-14.A conceptual framework based on ecological theory was used in this study. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed (using both quantitative and qualitative research methods in one study) research methods were applied, and various research designs were used depending on the research questions. The study involved a cross-sectional analysis of the diagnostic yield of Xpert MTB/RIF in GL among all child contacts with suspected TB. Across-sectional and prospective cohort study design was used to assess the uptake and adherence of IPT among eligible child contacts.