The Assessment of Effects of Carbon Quantum Dots on Immune System Biomarkers Using RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells
Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field of research. Due to major innovations brought about by developments in nanotech, several consumer products are currently available containing nanomaterials. The increase of nanomaterial production and use is accompanied by the increased potential of human, plant and animal exposure to these nanomaterials. As a relatively new nanomaterial, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are being extensively used and researched due to its unique properties. Although many studies have assessed the toxic potential of CQDs, and found them to exhibit low toxicity, there is lack of work assessing the effects on the immune system. In the present study, RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were used as model to assess the immunomodulatory potential of CQDs. RAW cells exposed to varying concentrations of CQDs (0-500μg/ml), showed that CQDs caused a reduction at cell viability. In the absence of a mitogen CQDs, induced an inflammatory response by stimulating the release of various cytokines and chemokines such as, TNFα, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IP-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and JE.