The effect of maternal exposure to alcohol and nicotine on pancreas and kidney size, aorta and carotid intima thickness and visceral fat in their children.
De Smidt, Juléy Janice Abigail
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In utero exposure to teratogens, increasing urbanization, rapid nutritional transition from poverty to affluence, adoption of a Western-style diet and physical inactivity have contributed to the growing obesity epidemic in the low-income countries. To investigate the associations between in utero exposure to alcohol and nicotine on the growth and development of children aged five years from a low-income setting. These effects will be observed in children aged five years as a reduced pancreas and kidney size, higher aorta and carotid intima thickness as well as higher visceral abdominal adiposity measurements.