Palladium telluride quantum dots biosensor for the determination of indinavir drug
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Indinavir is a potent and well tolerated protease inhibitor drug used as a component of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) of HIV/AIDS, which results in pharmacokinetics that may be favourable or adverse. These drugs work by maintaining a plasma concentration that is sufficient to inhibit viral replication and thereby suppressing a patient’s viral load. A number of antiretroviral drugs, including indinavir, undergo metabolism that is catalysed by cytochrome P450-3A4 enzyme found in the human liver microsomes. The rate of drug metabolism influences a patient’s response to treatment as well as drug interactions that may lead to life-threatening toxic conditions, such as haemolytic anaemia, kidney failure and liver problems. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during HIV/AIDS treatment has been suggested to have a potential to reduce drug toxicity and optimise individual therapy. A fast and reliable detection technique, such as biosensing, is therefore necessary for the determination of a patient’s metabolic profile for indinavir and for appropriate dosing of the drugs. In this study biosensors developed for the determination of ARV drugs comprised of cysteamine self-assembled on a gold electrode, on which was attached 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped palladium telluride (3-MPA-PdTe) or thioglycolic acid-capped palladium telluride (TGA-PdTe) quantum dots that are cross-linked to cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The quantum dots were synthesized in the presence of capping agents (3-MPA or TGA) to improve their stability, solubility and biocompatibility. The capping of PdTe quantum dots with TGA or 3-MPA was confirmed by FTIR, where the SH group absorption band disappeared from the spectra of 3-MPA-PdTe and TGA-PdTe. The particle size of the quantum dots (< 5 nm) was estimated from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements. Optical properties of the materials were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry which produced absorption iii bands at ~320 nm that corresponded to energy band gap values of 3 eV (3.87 eV) for TGAPdTe (3-MPA-PdTe) quantum dots. The electrocatalytic properties of the quantum dots biosensor systems were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) for which the characteristic reduction peak at 0.75 V was used to detect the response of the biosensor to indinavir. Results for indinavir biosensor constructed with 3-MPA-SnSe quantum dots are also reported in this thesis. The three biosensors systems were very sensitive towards indinavir; and gave low limits of detection (LOD) values of 3.22, 4.3 and 6.2 ng/mL for 3-MPA-SnSe, 3-MPA-PdTe and TGA-PdTe quantum dots biosensors, respectively. The LOD values are within the ‘maximum plasma concentration’ (Cmax) value of indinavir (5 - 15 ng/mL) normally observed 8 h after drug intake.