An in vitro study on the immunotoxicity of sewage effluents discharged into the Eerste River-Kuils river water catchment system
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"The aim of the study was to use in vitro human whole blood cultures to screen the water samples collected from the Eerste/Plankenbrug river system for cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity and for the first time investigate the impact on the cell- mediated and humoral immune pathways. Water samples were collected fronm the sites during the dry summer season and rainy winter season. Blood was collected from the healthy male volunteers and diluted with RPMI 1640. For cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity 2.5ul of blood for 18-20 hrs at 37 C... This study shows that waster from the Plankenbrug River is heavily polluted by contaminants from both the agricultural area and informal settlement of Kayamandi. These contaminants can be potentially immunotoxic during the summer season and they can result in inflammatory diarrheal disease and immunosuppression in exposed individuals..."