Electrochemical Aptasensing of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide-A Biomarker for Myocardial Infarction
infarction (MI) affects many parts of the western world and in South Africa alone it is estimated that MI is responsible for 1 in 6 deaths (17.3%). Traditional diagnostic methods for MI include an electrocardiograms and blood tests. The problem with these diagnostic methods are that they are time consuming, require large sample volumes, expensive equipment and complicated machinery. To achieve early detection of MI the discovery of specific, sensitive and reliable biomarkers are required. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been identified as a reliable biomarker for MI due to the fact that it has a defined cutoff of 100 pg/ml and it is not susceptible to patient‘s age which could make early detection of BNP complicated. Early detection methods for BNP has been based on immunoradiometric assays but problems associated with immunoradiometric assays are that there is a restricted availability of antigens and incubation of the labeled antibody could take up to two weeks which affects the patients waiting time on results. Electrochemical biosensors are emerging as early detection method for MI because they can be designed to be sensitive, specific to BNP at a low cost. This research study reported for the first the successful fabrication and implementation of highly sensitive mercaptosuccinic acid capped nickel selenide quantum dots (MSA-NiSe2 QDs) aptasensor for the detection of BNP. The poly-dispersed MSA-NiSe2 QDs were synthesized via an inexpensive, simple and reproducible aqueous microwave assisted irradiation method. The prepared MSA-NiSe2 QDs were characterized by Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High Resolution Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR TEM/SEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXSpace). The electrochemical properties of the MSA-NiSe2 QDs were investigated by Cylic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). HR-TEM revealed the formation of small sized MSA-NiSe2 QDs about 4 nm in diameter which was complemented by SAXSpace. UV-Vis studies showed absorption peaks in the ultraviolet region (100-400 nm) confirming the small size of these QDs as well confirming the direct and indirect bandgap of the QDs. XRD confirmed that the QDs are crystalline and belong to the bulk cubic MSA-NiSe2 QDs phase. FTIR studies confirmed the successful capping of MSA on the QDs due to the disappearance of the thiol peak at 2652 cm-1. Electrochemical studies revealed that the MSA-NiSe2 QDs showed good electrochemical properties on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) which allowed them to be used as a mediating platform between the aptamer and SPCE. The successful detection of BNP was achieved by an incubation process between the aptamer drop coated on the MSA-NiSe2 QDs/SPCE surface overnight. The response of the MSA-NiSe2 QDs based aptasensor towards different concentrations of BNP was studied by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). DPV showed a good linearly with correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.98. DPV also showed a high sensitivity (0.4513 μA/ pg/mL) towards detecting BNP with a detection limit of 11.93 pg/ml. The value of 11.93 pg/ml falls within the negative predictive value range of 10-100 pg/ml for early-stage diagnosis of BNP.