The effect of co-crystallization and polymorphism on the physicochemical properties of amoxicillin tri-hydrate
Many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have poor physicochemical properties such as solubility, dissolution and chemical stability. Several strategies are used to enhance and improve these properties of the API. Co-crystallization and polymorphism studies are possible strategy used in pre-formulation studies to optimize these properties of the drug without modifying its pharmacological effect. The purpose of this research was to investigate the polymorphism and co-crystallization effects of the penicillin-type antibiotic, amoxicillin tri-hydrate. Several techniques such as: slow evaporation, slow cooling, vapour diffusion, sublimation, grinding and solvent assisted grinding was employed. In producing co-crystals, the API was non-covalently bound to selected co-formers such as: saccharin, nicotinamide, salicylic acid, L-tartaric acid, D-tartaric acid, L-aspartic acid, stearic acid, benzoic anhydride, oxalic acid di-hydrate, cinnamic acid, succinic acid and citric acid monohydrate. Nine co-crystals of amoxicillin tri-hydrate had been formed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to analyse the thermal behaviour of the co-crystals. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and spectroscopic techniques [infra-red (FTIR) and H1-nuclear magnetic resonance (H1MNR)] were employed for screening of the co-crystal forms. Furthermore, dissolution testing was conducted to investigate the application of the newly derivatised forms.